A Pair of George II Scarlet Japanned Chairs

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Object Description

An exceptional pair of George II scarlet japanned side chairs. With a central figure surrounded by gilt chinoiseries of flowers and foliage. The bowed seat frame similarly decorated and with original cane-work seat. Raised upon two cabriole legs joined by a serpentine stretcher.

The Lazcano Suite
These chairs form part of the most celebrated and elaborate suite of English furniture from the eighteenth century. The Dukes of Infantado commissioned the esteemed cabinetmaker Giles Grendey to create the suite for their castle in Lazcano, Northern Spain. The extensive suite comprises of at least 77 pieces including tables, mirrors, tripod stands, and several desks and bookcases.

The significance of this palatial collection of furniture is unprecendented, and it has been the subject of numerous publications on furniture history. Historian R.W Symonds described pieces from the suite as ‘the best English cabinet-work’ in 1935 and Christopher Gilbert further emphasized the suite’s ‘outstanding importance’ in 1971. Today, many items from the suite are now represented in major museums around the globe, including the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Temple Newsam House, Leeds; and the Museo de las Artes Decorativas, Madrid. It is renowned as one of the most important groups of English furniture of the 18th Century.

Giles Grendey
(b 1693 – d 1780)

Giles Grendey was a leading London cabinet maker, born in Wooton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire. He was the apprentice to the London joiner William Sherborne, becoming a freeman in 1716. Taking his own apprentices by 1726, Grendey was elected to the Livery of the Joiners’ Company in 1729. His first workshop was at St. Paul’s, Covent Garden, and he moved to St. John’s Square, Clerkenwell in 1772 where he developed a thriving export trade.

There is not a great deal of extant information on Grendey’s English clients, however there is a bill from Richard Hoare of Barns Elms, Surrey that is dated 1723 and includes a chest of drawers, a ‘Burow Table,’ dressing glasses, chimney glasses, and a ‘Wrighting Disk.’ Henry Hoare’s account book, from Stourhead, lists payments between 1746-56 for £46 for chairs. Lord Scarsdale of Kedleston Hall, perhaps the most prominent known patron, acquired ‘1 Fine Jamai. Mahog. Plank’ for £21 in 1762. He also provided furniture for Sir Jacob de Bouverie at Longford Castle.

Grendey was one of only a few English cabinetmakers to affix trade labels to his furniture. This record helps to provide additional information on Grendey’s clients and work. There are a few extant pieces that retain his labels, including a few pieces from Infantado Suite which also feature the stamped initials of workmen in Grendey’s employ. His labels advertised that he ‘makes and sells all sorts of cabinet goods, chairs, and glasses.’ According to R. W. Symonds, Grendey is probably the only English furniture maker of whom definite evidence exists of his thriving export trade.

One record of his exportation of goods was reported in various newspapers on August 7, 1731 after a fire started on adjacent premises to Mr Grendey ‘a Cabinet-maker and Chair-maker.’ This devastating fire caused him to lose furniture to the value of £1,000, including one particular piece which was described as: ‘among other rich and valuable Goods was burnt a Chair of such rich and curious Workmanship… it being intended, to be purchas’d by a person of Quality who design’d it as a Present to a German Prince,’ which he ‘had packed for Exportation against the next morning’. Bearing in mind, £1,000 in 1731 was an extraordinary amount of money.  

Furniture made in London for the Spanish market in particular invariably displayed distinctive features that were designed to appeal to the Spaniard’s love of opulence. Wealthy Spaniards showed an affinity for exotic lacquer work, in contrast to the more traditional English timbers of walnut and mahogany which were so popular with the home market.   Giles Grendey and other firms involved in the export trade therefore produced japanned pieces as it emulated the appearance of lacquer. Scarlet was the most popular ground colour, generously enriched with gilt ornament in the Chinese taste.

Grendey’s daughter Sukey married John Cobb, a cabinet maker who partnered with William Vile and also served as a cabinet-maker for George III.

The Design
The design of the chairs, both in form and ornamentation, draws on inspiration from both Chinese and Roman sources, which were leading decorative aesthetics in the early Georgian period.

The fashion for japanning began in earnest following the publication of John Stalker and George Parker’s publication, A Treatise on Japanning and Varnishing, in 1688. This guide offered a thorough description of the japanning technique as well as decorative schemes to use. Grendey’s chairs draw direct inspiration from this treatise, including his skillful application of highlighted areas and altering gilded tones raised in bas-relief.

The large scale central figures and garden scenes enriched with birds and animals reflect an English interpretation of Chinese imperial luxury. Drawings and records of visits to China in the late 17th and early 18th centuries came back to Europe and became source material for designers looking to evoke the Chinese aesthetic. In France, the Beauvais tapestry manufactory produced a series entitled Histoire du Roi de la Chine. The taste for chinoserie designs in France, and abroad, expanded with publication Livre de Dessins Chinois in 1735 and a profusion of wallpapers designed with chinoiserie scenes at this time.

The Dukes of Infantado
The Palace of Lazcano was built between 1620 and 1640 in Guipúzcoa, Northern Spain and is associated with one of the oldest noble titles in Spain, dating back to 1330 when the head of the family was created Señor de la Casa de Lazcano con Grandeza de España.

In 1697, Dom Juan Antonio de Arteaga acquired the Palace of Lazcano and assumed the name Lazcano. It is possible that the suite of furniture was originally commissioned for the Palace of Lazcano, possibly for Don Juan Raimundo, 3rd Marqués de Valmediano (d.1761).

In 1891, on the death of the fifteenth Duke of Infantado, Don Andrés, a descendant of Don Juan Antonio Arteaga of Lazcano inherited the Dukedom, the inheritance tying the Dukes of Infantado to the Palace of Lazcano. The Dukedom of Infantado (‘con Grandeza de España’),
was granted to Diego Hurtdao de Mendoza y Figueroa, son of Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Santillana, by King Ferdinand VII and Queen Isabella, on 22 July 1475. They were one of the grandest families in Spanish history, and they count seven knights in the
Order of the Golden Fleece and one Prime Minster of Spain. The family owned a number of important residences, including the Castillo de Manzanares in Castilla, and the Palacio del Infantado in Guadalajara.

The Infantado were perfectly positioned in the early 18th century to embark on the commissioning such a suite of furniture. Don Juan de Dios de Silva y Mendoza (1672-1737), the tenth Duke, was one of the richest men in Spain at the time, and it is possible he could have commissioned the suite for his daughter, Maria Francisca Alfonsa de Silva Mendoza y Sandoval (1707-1770), the future eleventh Dutchess, after her marriage in 1724 or on her accession in 1737. The eleventh Duchess herself may also have had a role in acquiring the collection. They may well have brought the suite with them when they inherited Lazcano in 1891.

The suite is recorded in a nineteenth century phootgrograph of an interior of the Palace of Lazcano which was later reproduced in La Casa del Infantado cabeza de los Mendoza by Cristina de Arteaga (Vol II, Madrid, 1944).

In 1930, the German dealer Adolph Loewi (1888-1977), visited the castle and acquired a great deal of the collection, including fifty side chairs, twelve armchairs, two daybeds, two pairs of mirrors, a pair of candlestands, a card table, and a tripod tea table. From his shops in Venice and later in America, Loewi sold the collection to clients internationally. One of the greatest patrons was Walter Tower Rosen (1875-1951), who was an avid art collector. Rosen acquired thirty pieces for his Caramoor estate in Katonah, New York. Part of the suite was published in 1944, photographed in situ in the late 19th century in the Saloon at the Palace of Lazcano. This was after the Venice-based dealer Adolph Loewi had acquired the majority of the suite in 1930. The suite has since been widely dispersed with many pieces having been acquired by important museums and collections worldwide. 

Object History

Almost certainly supplied to either Don Juan Raimundo de Arteaga-Lazcano y Chiriboga (d.1761), III Marqués de Valmediano, for Lazcano Castle, San Sebastián, Spain, circa 1735-1740, and by descent at Lazcano

Or, to Don Juan de Dios de Silva Mendoza y Sandival, X Duque del Infantado (1672-1737), or his daughter, Dona Maria Teresa de Silva y Mendoza, XI Duquesa del Infantado (1707-1770), and by decent at Lazcano.

Object Literature

R.W. Symonds, ‘Giles Grendey (1693-1780) and the Export Trade of English Furniture to Spain’, Apollo, 1935, pp. 337-342

R.W. Symonds, Masterpieces of English Furniture and Clocks, London, 1940, pp. 87-88, figs. 56-57.

R. Edwards & M, Jourdain, ‘Georgian Cabinet-Makers VIII ‘ Giles Grendey & William Hallett’. Country Life, 1942, pp. 176-177.

C. de Arteago, La casa del Infantado, Cabeza de Mendoza, vol. II, 1944

R.W. Symonds, ‘In Search of Giles Grendey’, 1955, p. 145.

C. Gilbert, ‘Furniture by Giles Grendey for the Spanish Trade’, The Magazine Antiques, April 1971, pp. 544-550.

‘English Japanned Furniture’, Connoisseur, June 1964, p. 120.

Leeds Art Calendar, no 66, 1970, p.3.

H. Huth, Lacquer of the West, 1971, pls. 65-66.

G. Wills, English Furniture 1550-1760, London, 1971, p.130.

S. Jervis, ‘A Great Dealer in the Cabinet Way: Giles Grendey (1693-1780)’, Country Life, 1974, pp. 1418-1419.

C. Gilbert, Furniture at Temple Newsam House and Lotherton Hall, vol. I, Leeds, 1978, pp.79-81

G. Beard & C. Gilbert (eds.), The Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840, Leeds, 1986, pp. 371-372.

G. Beard & J. Goodison, English Furniture 1500-1840, Oxford, 1987, pp. 34 & 86. C. Gilbert, The Pictorial Dictionary of Marked London Furniture 1700-1840, Leeds, 1996, pp.31-32 & figs. 442-451.

C. Ordoñez Goded, ‘Japanning en España. Un lote de muebles de laca color escarlata realizado por Giles Grendey’. Revista de la Asociación para el estudio del mueble, nr. 14. Barcelona, 2011, pp.14-21.

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